Number Theory

 1. (14 p.) Let $$0 < a < b < c < d$$ be integers such that $$a$$, $$b$$, $$c$$ is an arithmetic progression, $$b$$, $$c$$, $$d$$ is a geometric progression, and $$d - a = 30$$. Find $$a + b + c + d$$.

 2. (21 p.) Let $$\tau (n)$$ denote the number of positive divisors of $$n$$, including 1 and $$n$$. Define $$S(n)$$ by $$S(n)=\tau(1)+ \tau(2) + \dots + \tau(n)$$. Let $$a$$ denote the number of positive integers $$n \leq 2008$$ with $$S(n)$$ odd, and let $$b$$ denote the number of positive integers $$n \leq 2008$$ with $$S(n)$$ even. Find $$|a-b|$$.

 3. (1 p.) The square $$\begin{array}{|c|c|c|} \hline x&20&151 \\\hline 38 & & \\ \hline & & \\ \hline\end{array}$$ is magic, i.e. in each cell there is a number so that the sums of each row and column and of the two main diagonals are all equal. Find $$x$$.

 4. (17 p.) Find the largest possible integer $$n$$ such that $$\sqrt n + \sqrt{n+60} = \sqrt m$$ for some non-square integer $$m$$.

 5. (44 p.) Let $$f$$ be a function defined along the rational numbers such that $$f(\tfrac mn)=\tfrac1n$$ for all relatively prime positive integers $$m$$ and $$n$$. The product of all rational numbers $$0< x< 1$$ such that $f\left(\dfrac{x-f(x)}{1-f(x)}\right)=f(x)+\dfrac9{52}$ can be written in the form $$\tfrac pq$$ for positive relatively prime integers $$p$$ and $$q$$. Find $$p+q$$.

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