IMOmath

Combinatorics

1. (29 p.)
A bug moves around a triangle wire. At each vertex it has 1/2 chance of moving towards each of the other two vertices. The probability that after crawling along 10 edges it reaches its starting point can be expressed as \( p/q \) for positive relatively prime integers \( p \) and \( q \). Determine \( p+q \).

2. (25 p.)
A circle of radius 1 is randomly placed inside a \( 15 \times 36 \) rectangle \( ABCD \). The probability that it does not intersect the diagonal \( AC \) can be expressed as \( p/q \) where \( p \) and \( q \) are relatively prime integers. Find \( p+q \).

3. (4 p.)
Let \( S \) be the set of vertices of a unit cube. Find the number of triangles whose vertices belong to \( S \).

4. (6 p.)
Let \( S = \{1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34\} \). Find the sum \( \sum \max(A) \) where the sum is taken over all 28 two-element subsets \( A \) of \( S \).

5. (34 p.)
At the basement of a building with 5 floors, Adam, Bob, Cindy, Diana and Ernest entered the elevator. The elevator goes only up and doesn’t come back, and each person gets out of the elevator at one of the five floors. In how many ways can the five people leave the elevator in such a way that at no time are there a male and a female alone in the elevator?





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