Mathematical competitions in Russia have been held since 1934, when the first Saint Peterburg MO was held. The first Moscow MO was held the year after. The All-Russian MO is the main competition and consists of five rounds, the final (5-th) round being held in late April. However, olympiads in Moscow and Saint Peterburg are held independently, and the most successful students from each of these two olympiads qualify directly for the final round of the All-Russian MO. The first All-Russian MO was organized in 1961, but it was renamed the All-Soviet MO in 1967. The All-Russian MO was reestablished in 1975, but with the reset numbering (so that there are two 1-st All-Russian Olympiads!). Thereafter, until 1992 it was a pre-final round for the All-Soviet MO. Today some 50-70 students from each of grades 9, 10, 11 take part at the Final round. For younger students competitions end in the Fourth round, though some 8-th graders participate in the 9-th grade concurrence.
Russia at International Competitions
Russia, formerly within Soviet Union, has participated at IMO since its foundation 1959. The team for an IMO is selected through Winter tests and All-Russian MO. In the recent history, the best success of Russian team on an IMO is the 1-st place (shared with China) in 1999.