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Number Theory
1.
(18 p.)
Find the largest possible integer \( n \) such that \( \sqrt n + \sqrt{n+60} = \sqrt m \) for some nonsquare integer \( m \).
2.
(22 p.)
Let \( \tau (n) \) denote the number of positive divisors of \( n \), including 1 and \( n \). Define \( S(n) \) by \( S(n)=\tau(1)+ \tau(2) + \dots + \tau(n) \). Let \( a \) denote the number of positive integers \( n \leq 2008 \) with \( S(n) \) odd, and let \( b \) denote the number of positive integers \( n \leq 2008 \) with \( S(n) \) even. Find \( ab \).
3.
(1 p.)
Let \( n \) be the largest positive integer for which there exists a positive integer \( k \) such that \[ k\cdot n! = \frac{(((3!)!)!}{3!}.\] Determine \( n \).
4.
(11 p.)
Determine the number of positive integers with exactly three proper divisors each of which is less than 50. (1 is a proper divisor of every integer greater than 1)
5.
(46 p.)
Let \( f \) be a function defined along the rational numbers such that \( f(\tfrac mn)=\tfrac1n \) for all relatively prime positive integers \( m \) and \( n \). The product of all rational numbers \( 0< x< 1 \) such that \[ f\left(\dfrac{xf(x)}{1f(x)}\right)=f(x)+\dfrac9{52}\] can be written in the form \( \tfrac pq \) for positive relatively prime integers \( p \) and \( q \). Find \( p+q \).
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