IMOmath

Combinatorics

1. (13 p.)
Two students Alice and Bob participated in a two-day math contest. At the end both had attempted questions worth 500 points. Alice scored 160 out of 300 attempted on the first day and 140 out of 200 attempted on the second day, so her two-day success ratio was 300/500 = 3/5. Bob’s scores are different from Alice’s (but with the same two-day total). Bob had a positive integer score on each day. However, for each day Bob’s success ratio was less than Alice’s. Assume that \( p/q \) (\( p \) and \( q \) are relatively prime integers) is the largest possible two-day success ratio that Bob could have achieved. Calculate \( p+q \).

2. (13 p.)
Given a regular 12-gon D, determine the number of squares that have two or more vertices among the vertices of D.

3. (28 p.)
In a tournament club \( C \) plays 6 matches, and for each match the probabilities of a win, draw and loss are equal. If the probability that \( C \) finishes with more wins than losses is \( \frac pq \) with \( p \) and \( q \) coprime \( (q>0) \), find \( p+q \).

4. (13 p.)
Assume that \( A \) is a 40-element subset of \( \{1,2,3,\dots,50\} \), and let \( n \) be the sum of the elements of \( A \). Find the number of possible values of \( n \).

5. (31 p.)
There are 27 candidates in elections and \( n \) citizens that vote for them. If a candidate gets \( m \) votes, then \( 100m/n \leq m-1 \). What is the smallest possible value of \( n \)?





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